The University of Arizona

Christopher Castro | CCASS


A new website focused on Scenario Planning for Climate Adaptation,, has been developed by CCASS and the DOI Southwest Climate Science Center. 

About Us

CCASS/NNCAP welcomes Valerie Small!

Dr. Valerie Small (Apsaalooke'-Crow) has joined the Native Nations Climate Adaptation Program as an Assistant Research Scientist. Dr. Small will be working with Tribes in the Southwest Region in collaboration with CCASS and NNCAP within the Institute of the Environment as well as the Southwest Climate Science Center (SW CSC). She will develop and deliver educational training modules to increase their environmental technical capacity in preparing for, as well as predicting near-term/future effects of climate change.

Prior to joining the UA, Valerie was a training consultant with Colorado State University, Natural Resource Ecology Lab (NREL), working with the North Central Climate Science Center. Her experience includes developing and conducting training and research to support North American Indigenous Tribes adaptation planning efforts to prepare for the effects of a warming climate.  

Christopher Castro

Degree: Ph.D., Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, 2005


  • Future Projection of Monsoon Severe Weather for DoD Facilities in the Southwest: Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program
  • Dynamically Downscaled Water Resource Projections for the Colorado River Basin: Department of Interior, Southwest Climate Change Center
  • Improved Groundwater Resource Projections in the Santa Cruz Basin: NOAA SARP

Selected citations:

  • Cayan, D., M. Tyree, K.E. Kunkel, C. Castro, A. Gurshunov, J. Barsugli, A.J. Ray, J. Overpeck, M. Anderson, B. Rajagopalan, I. Rangwala, and P Duffy. Future Climate: Projected Average, Chapter 6 of Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: A Report Prepared for the National Climate Change Assessment.  A report by Southwest Climate Alliance.  G. Garfin, A. Jardine, R. Merideth, M. Black, and S. Leroy, Eds., Washington, DC: Island Press, 2013.
  • Woodhouse, C.A., D.M. Meko, D. Griffin, and C.L. Castro, 2013.  Tree rings reveal multi-season drought variability in the lower Rio Grande Basin, USA.  Water Resour. Research, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20098.
  • Dominguez, F., E. Rivera,  D.P. Lettenmaier and C.L. Castro. Changes in winter precipitation extremes for the western United States under a warm climate as simulated by regional climate models. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L05803, 2012. doi:10.1029/2011GL050762  
Areas of Expertise: 
ATMO Sciences/Climate Modeling, Climate Assessment
Geographic Expertise: 
Latin America and Caribbean, US/Canada
Subregional Speciality: 
Northern Mexico